SAR Evaluation



SAR simulation of a mobile phone and a Virtual Population model.






antenna1 tgSimulation and visualization of EMF-emissions from a base station.





SAR measurements in a variety of phantoms can be performed with validated, industry-leading hardware.

Exposure Evaluation

Expertise & Infrastructure

Since its establishment in 1999, the IT'IS Foundation has been at the forefront of developing instrumentation, methods, and procedures for international standards in EMF exposure assessment and health risk assessments. For wireless mobile devices, typically the Specific Absorption Rate (SAR) is the parameter of interest. Together with SPEAG, IT'IS developed the first commercial SAR test system, and has been a key member in developing SAR standards for the full range of wireless communication devices.

The group’s exposure assessment laboratories are equipped with the most advanced tools including the cSAR3D (left/right/flat/quad), the latest DASY8 RX90L with all modules, and a wide range of specialized probes. With more than 100 SemCAD/Sim4Life licenses, including the Virtual Population 3.x/4.x and multiple animal models, and several High Performance Computers (HPC) ranging from Graphics Processing Unit (GPU) clusters to supercomputers, our interdisciplinary research team can tackle highly specific and complex research tasks with superior innovation and efficiency – while ensuring compliance to national and international standards.


Select Customized Research Projects of the Past Years
  • Created SAR test reports compliant with all international SAR test standards and national guidelines (IEC 62209-1528, IEEE 1528, FCC, KCC, CE, etc.);
  • Performed exposure assessment of prototype smart watches in collaboration with manufacturers;
  • Evaluated worst-case exposure of a roadside antenna for Swisscom (made available online: parts 1 and 2);
  • Evaluated face-worn wireless devices, including the development and validation of customized phantoms;
  • Performed various customized research projects involving in- and on-body antennas, 5G exposure evaluations, and wireless power transfer technologies.


Solutions Beyond State-of-the-Art

Complementing our experimental exposure measurements, IT'IS is able to design, perform and validate multi-parameter simulations to determine SAR compliance in a variety of exposure cases using detailed anatomical models such as the Virtual Population; vast parameter spaces can be screened cost-effectively to find worst-case exposure conditions. For example, the sample space of varying input power, antenna position, and BMI of subject can be fully explored to identify worst-case exposure conditions for full analysis. IT'IS specializes in exposure assessments of complex, non-standard devices and use cases, such as large devices, wearables, implanted, electrically small antennas, or systems with multiple configurations and simultaneous transmission modes. IT'IS is committed to exploring the frontiers of simulation aided, experimentally validated exposure assessment together with potential partners.



We look forward to discussing with you how we can best support your R&D initiatives and regulatory submissions – simply call us at +41 44 245 96 96 or send us an email at


Xi, J., Christ, A. & Kuster, N. Coverage factors for efficient demonstration of compliance of low-frequency magnetic near-field exposures with basic restrictions. Physics in Medicine \& Biology, 68(3):035007, 2023, doi:10.1088/1361-6560/aca875
Castellanos, G., De Gheselle, S., Martens, L., Kuster, N., Joseph, W., Deruyck, M. & Kühn, S. Multi-objective optimisation of human exposure for various 5G network topologies in Switzerland. Computer Networks, 216:109255, 2022, doi:10.1016/j.comnet.2022.109255
Cujia, K.S., Fallahi, A., Reboux, S. & Kuster, N. Experimental exposure evaluation from the very close near-to the far-field using a multiple-multipole source reconstruction algorithm. IEEE Transactions on Antennas and Propagation, 70(9):8461-8472, 2022, doi:10.1109/TAP.2022.3177564
Poni, R., Neufeld, E., Capstick, M., Bodis, S. & Kuster, N. Rapid SAR optimization for hyperthermic oncology: Combining multi-goal optimization and time-multiplexed steering for hotspot suppression. International Journal of Hyperthermia, 39(1):758-771, 2022, doi:10.1080/02656736.2022.2080284
De Borre, E., Joseph, W., Aminzadeh, R., Müller, P., Boone, M.N., Josipovic, I., Hashemizadeh, S., Kuster, N., Kühn, S. & Thielens, A. Radio-frequency exposure of the yellow fever mosquito (A. aegypti) from 2 to 240 GHz. PLOS Computational Biology, 17(10):e1009460, Cai, M.B.(eds), 2021, doi:10.1371/journal.pcbi.1009460
Samaras, T., Christ, A. & Kuster, N. Compliance assessment of the epithelial or absorbed power density below 10 GHz using SAR measurement systems. Bioelectromagnetics, 42(6):484-490, 2021, doi:10.1002/bem.22355
Yao, A., Zastrow, E., Cabot, E., Lloyd, B., Schneider, B., Kainz, W. & Kuster, N. Anatomical Model Uncertainty for RF Safety Evaluation of Metallic Implants Under MRI Exposure. Bioelectromagnetics, 40(7):458-471, 2019, doi:10.1002/bem.22206
Yao, A., Zastrow, E., Neufeld, E. & Kuster, N. Efficient and Reliable Assessment of the Maximum Local Tissue Temperature Increase at the Electrodes of Medical Implants under MRI Exposure. Bioelectromagnetics, 40(6):422-433, 2019, doi:10.1002/bem.22208
Liorni, I., Neufeld, E., Kühn, S., Murbach, M., Zastrow, E., Kainz, W. & Kuster, N. Novel Mechanistic Model and Computational Approximation for Electromagnetic Safety Evaluations of Electrically Short Implants. Physics in Medicine and Biology, 63(22), 2018
Neufeld, E., Carrasco, E., Murbach, M., Balzano, Q., Christ, A. & Kuster, N. Theoretical and Numerical Assessment of Maximally Allowable Power-Density Averaging Area for Conservative Electromagnetic Exposure Assessment Above 6 GHz. Bioelectromagnetics, 39(8):617-630, 2018, doi:10.1002/bem.22147
Neufeld, E. & Kuster, N. Systematic Derivation of Safety Limits for Time Varying 5G Radiation Exposure Based on Analytical Models and Thermal Dose. Health Physics, 115(6):705-711, 2018, doi:10.1097/HP.0000000000000930
Wyde, M.E., Horn, T.L., Capstick, M., Lasbury, J.M., Koepke, G., Wilson, P.F., Kissling, G.E., Stout, M.D., Kuster, N., Melnick, R.L., Gauger, J., Bucher, J.R. & McCormick, D.L. Effect of Cell Phone Radiofrequency Radiation on Body Temperature in Rodents: Pilot Studies of the National Toxicology Program's Reverberation Chamber Exposure System. Bioelectromagnetics, 39(3):190-199, 2018
Yao, A., Zastrow, E. & Kuster, N. Data‐Driven Experimental Evaluation Method for the Safety Assessment of Implants With Respect to RF‐Induced Heating During MRI. Radio Science, 53(6):700-709, 2018, doi:10.1029/2017RS006433
Capstick, M., Kuster, N., Kühn, S., Gong, Y., Wilson, P., Ladbury, J., Koepke, G., McCormick, D.L., Gauger, J. & Melnick, R.L. A Radio Frequency Radiation Exposure System for Rodents based on Reverberation Chambers. IEEE Transactions on Electromagnetic Compatibility, 59(4):1041-1052, 2017
Gong, Y., Capstick, M., Kühn, S., Wilson, P., Ladbury, J., Koepke, G., McCormick, D.L., Melnick, R.L. & Kuster, N. Life-Time Dosimetric Assessment for Mice and Rats Exposed in Reverberation Chambers of the 2-Year NTP Cancer Bioassay Study on Cell Phone Radiation. IEEE Transactions on Electromagnetic Compatibility, 59(6):1798-1808, 2017
Manser, M., Sater, M., Schmid, C., Noreen, F., Murbach, M., Kuster, N., Schuermann, D. & Schär, P. ELF‑MF Exposure Affects Robustness of Epigenetic Programming during Granulopoiesis. Scientific Reports, 7:43345, 2017
Moorselaar, I.v., Slottje, P., Heller, P., Strien, R.v., Kromhout, H., Murbach, M., Kuster, N., Vermeulen, R. & Huss, A. Effects of personalised exposure on self-rated electromagnetic hypersensitivity and sensibility - A double blind randomised controlled trial. Environment International, 99:255-262, 2017
Murbach, M., Neufeld, E., Samaras, T., Corcoles, J., Robb, F., Kainz, W. & Kuster, N. Pregnant Women Models Analyzed for RF Exposure and Temperature Increase within 3 T RF Shimmed Birdcages. Magnetic Resonance in Medicine, 77(5):2048-2056, 2017
Xie, T., Kuster, N. & Zaidi, H. Computational hybrid anthropometric paediatric phantom library for internal radiation dosimetry. Physics in Medicine and Biology, 62(8):3263-3283, 2017
Capstick, M., Gong, Y., Pasche, B. & Kuster, N. An HF Exposure System for Mice with Improved Efficiency. Bioelectromagnetics, 37(4):223-233, 2016
Golbach, L., Portelli, L., Savelkoul, H., Terwel, S., Kuster, N., Vries, R.d. & Kemenade, L.V.v. Calcium homeostasis and low-frequency magnetic and electric field exposure: A systematic review and meta-analysis of in vitro studies. Environment International, 92-93:675-706, 2016
Gong, Y., Capstick, M., Dasenbrock, C., Fedrowitz, M., Cobaleda, C., Sanchez-Garcia, I. & Kuster, N. Comparative Dosimetry for Children and Rodents Exposed to Extremely Low-Frequency Magnetic Fields. Bioelectromagnetics, 37(5):310-322, 2016
Gong, Y., Capstick, M., Tillmann, T., Dasenbrock, C., Samaras, T. & Kuster, N. Desktop Exposure System and Dosimetry for Small Scale In Vivo Radio Frequency Exposure Experiments. Bioelectromagnetics, 37(1):49-61, 2016
Huss, A., Murbach, M., Moorselaar, I.v., Kuster, N., Strien, R.v., Kromhout, H., Vermeulen, R. & Slottje, P. Novel Exposure Units for at-Home Personalized Testing of Electromagnetic Sensibility. Bioelectromagnetics, 37(1):62-68, 2016
Liorni, I., Parazzini, M., Fiocchi, S., Douglas, M., Capstick, M., Kuster, N. & Ravazzani, P. Computational Assessment of Pregnant Woman Models Exposed to Uniform ELF- Magnetic Fields: Compliance with the European Current Exposure Regulations for the General Public and Occupational Exposures at 50 Hz. Radiation Protection Dosimetry, 172(4):382-392, 2016
Murbach, M., Neufeld, E., Cabot, E., Zastrow, E., Corcoles, J., Kainz, W. & Kuster, N. Virtual Population-Based Assessment of the Impact of 3 Tesla Radiofrequency Shimming and Thermoregulation on Safety and B1+ Uniformity. Magnetic Resonance in Medicine, 76(3):986-997, 2016
Neufeld, E., Oikonomidis, I.V., Iacono, M., Angelone, L., Kainz, W. & Kuster, N. Investigation of Assumptions Underlying Current Safety Guidelines on EM-Induced Nerve Stimulation. Physics in Medicine and Biology, 61(12):4466-4478, 2016
Corcoles, J., Zastrow, E. & Kuster, N. Convex Optimization of MRI Exposure for Mitigation of RF-Heating from Active Medical Implants. Physics in Medicine and Biology, 60(18):7293-7308, 2015
De Santis, V., Douglas, M., Nadakuduti, J., Benkler, S., Chen, X.L. & Kuster, N. Human Exposure from Pulsed Magnetic Field Therapy Mats: A Numerical Case Study with 3 Commercial Products. Bioelectromagnetics, 36(2):149-161, 2015
Murbach, M., Zastrow, E., Neufeld, E., Cabot, E., Kainz, W. & Kuster, N. Heating and Safety Concerns of the Radio-Frequency Field in MRI. In Current Radiology ReportsCurrent Radiology Reports, 3(12), Springer, 2015, doi:10.1007/s40134-015-0128-6
Nadakuduti, J., Douglas, M., Lu, L., Christ, A., Guckian, P. & Kuster, N. Compliance Testing Methodology for Wireless Power Transfer Systems. IEEE Transactions on Power Electronics, 30(11):6264-6273, 2015
Neufeld, E., Fütterer, M., Murbach, M. & Kuster, N. Rapid Method for Thermal Dose-Based Safety Supervision during MR Scans. Bioelectromagnetics, 36(5):398-407, 2015
Rubtsova, N., Balzano, Q., Kuster, N., Perov, S. & Belaya, O. Near Field Radiofrequency Electromagnetic Exposure Assessment. Electromagnetic Biology and Medicine, 34(3):180-182, 2015
Schmid, G. & Kuster, N. The Discrepancy Between Maximum In Vitro Exposure Levels and Realistic Conservative Exposure Levels of Mobile Phones Operating at 900/1800 MHz. Bioelectromagnetics, 36(2):133-148, 2015
Cabot, E., Christ, A., Bühlmann, B., Zefferer, M., Chavannes, N., Bakker, J., van Rhoon, G. & Kuster, N. Quantification of the RF-Exposure of the Fetus using Anatomical CAD-Models in Three Different Gestational Phases. Health Physics, 107(5):369-381, 2014
Chen, X.L., Umenei, A., Baarman, D., Chavannes, N., De Santis, V., Mosig, J. & Kuster, N. Human Exposure to Close-Range Resonant Wireless Power Transfer Systems as a Function of Design Parameters. IEEE Transactions on Electromagnetic Compatibility, 56(5):1027-1034, 2014
Murbach, M., Neufeld, E., Capstick, M., Kainz, W., Brunner, D., Samaras, T., Prüssmann, K. & Kuster, N. Thermal Tissue Damage Model Analyzed for Different Whole-Body SAR and Scan Durations for Standard MR Body Coils. Magnetic Resonance in Medicine, 71(1):421-431, 2014, doi:10.1002/mrm.24671
Murbach, M., Neufeld, E., Christopoulou, M., Achermann, P. & Kuster, N. Modeling of EEG Electrode Artifacts and Thermal Ripples in Human Radiofrequency Exposure Studies. Bioelectromagnetics, 35(4):273-283, 2014
Capstick, M., Schär, P., Schürmann, D., Romann, A. & Kuster, N. ELF Exposure System for Live Cell Imaging. Bioelectromagnetics, 34(3):231-239, 2013, doi:10.1002/bem.21751
Chen, X.L., Benkler, S., Chavannes, N., De Santis, V., Bakker, J., van Rhoon, G., Mosig, J. & Kuster, N. Analysis of Human Brain Exposure to Low-Frequency Magnetic Fields: a Numerical Assessment of Spatially Averaged Electric Fields and Exposure Limits. Bioelectromagnetics, 34(5):375-384, 2013, doi:10.1002/bem.21780
Christ, A., Douglas, M., Nadakuduti, J. & Kuster, N. Assessing Human Exposure to Electromagnetic Fields from Wireless Power Transmission Systems. Proceedings of the IEEE, 101(6):1482-1493, 2013, doi:10.1109/JPROC.2013.2245851
Christ, A., Douglas, M., Roman, J., Cooper, E., Sample, A., Smith, J., Waters, B. & Kuster, N. Evaluation of Wireless Resonant Power Transfer Systems with Human Electromagnetic Exposure Limits. IEEE Transactions on Electromagnetic Compatibility, 55(2):265-274, 2013, doi:10.1109/TEMC.2012.2219870
Kühn, S. & Kuster, N. Field Evaluation of the Human Exposure from Multi-Band, Multi-System Mobile Phones. IEEE Transactions Electromagnetics Compatibility, 55(2):275-287, 2013, doi:10.1109/TEMC.2012.2220971
van Rhoon, G., Samaras, T., Yarmolenko, P., Dewhirst, M., Neufeld, E. & Kuster, N. CEM43 Thermal Dose Thresholds: A Potential Guide for Magnetic Resonance Radiofrequency Exposure Levels? European Radiology, 23(8):2215-2227, 2013, doi:10.1007/s00330-013-2825-y
Chen, X.L., Ofli, E., Chavannes, N. & Kuster, N. A Novel Approach for Mobile Device Design: GA-based Distributed Optimization to Comply with OTA, SAR and HAC Standards. IEEE Antenna and Propagation Magazine, 54(1):22-31, 2012, doi:10.1109/MAP.2012.6202509
Christ, A., Guldimann, R., Bühlmann, B., Zefferer, M., Bakker, J., van Rhoon, G. & Kuster, N. Exposure of the Human Body to Professional and Domestic Induction Cooktops Compared to the Basic Restrictions. Bioelectromagnetics, 33(8):695-705, 2012, doi:10.1002/bem.21739
Gosselin, M.C., Kühn, S., Christ, A., Zefferer, M., Cherubini, E., Bakker, J., van Rhoon, G. & Kuster, N. Experimental Evaluation of the SAR Induced in Head Phantoms of Three- and Eight-Year-Old Children. IEICE Transactions on Communication, E95-B(10):3215-3224, 2012, doi:10.1587/transcom.E95.B.3215
Kyriakou, A., Christ, A., Neufeld, E. & Kuster, N. Local Tissue Temperature Increase of a Generic Implant Compared to the Basic Restrictions Defined in Safety Guidelines. Bioelectromagnetics, 33(5):366-374, 2012, doi:10.1002/bem.21695
Murbach, M., Christopoulou, M., Crespo-Valero, P., Achermann, P. & Kuster, N. Exposure System to Study Hypotheses of ELF and RF Electromagnetic Field Interactions of Mobile Phones with the Central Nervous System. Bioelectromagnetics, 33(6):527-533, 2012, doi:10.1002/bem.21710
Nadakuduti, J., Douglas, M., Capstick, M., Kühn, S. & Kuster, N. Application of an induced field sensor for assessment of electromagnetic exposure from compact fluorescent lamps. Bioelectromagnetics, 33(2):166-175, 2012, doi:10.1002/bem.20696
Nadakuduti, J., Douglas, M., Capstick, M., Kühn, S. & Kuster, N. Application of an Induced Field Sensor for Assessment of Electromagnetic Exposure From Compact Fluorescent Lamps. Bioelectromagnetics, 33(2):166-175, 2012, doi:10.1002/bem.20696
Crespo-Valero, P., Christopoulou, M., Zefferer, M., Christ, A., Achermann, P., Nikita, K. & Kuster, N. Novel Methodology to Characterize Electromagnetic Exposure of the Brain. Physics in Medicine and Biology, 56(2):383-396, 2011, doi:10.1088/0031-9155/56/2/007
Gosselin, M.C., Kühn, S., Crespo-Valero, P., Cherubini, E., Zefferer, M., Christ, A. & Kuster, N. Estimation of Head-Tissue Specific Exposure from Mobile Phones Based on Measurements in the Homogeneous SAM Head. Bioelectromagnetics, 32(6):493-505, 2011, doi:10.1002/bem.20662
Kelsh, M., Shum, M., Sheppard, A., McNeely, M., Kuster, N., Lau, E., Weidling, R., Fordyce, T., Kühn, S. & Sulser, C. Measured Radiofrequency Exposure During Various Mobile-Phone Use Scenarios. Journal of Exposure Science and Environmental Epidemiology, 21(4):343-354, 2011, doi:10.1038/jes.2010.12
Lehmann, H., Pollara, L., Spichtig, S., Kühn, S. & Wolf, M. Head Exposure System for a Human Provocation Study to Assess the Possible Influence of UMTS-like Electromagnetic Fields on Cerebral Blood Circulation Using Near Infrared Imaging. Bioelectromagnetics, 33(2):124-133, 2011, doi:10.1002/bem.20688
Lowden, A., \AA, T., Ingre, M., Wiholm, C., Hillert, L., Kuster, N., Nilsson, J. & Arnetz, B. Sleep After Mobile Phone Exposure in Subjects With Mobile Phone-Related Symptoms. Bioelectromagnetics, 32(1):4-14, 2011, doi:10.1002/bem.20609
Murbach, M., Cabot, E., Neufeld, E., Gosselin, M.C., Christ, A., Prüssmann, K. & Kuster, N. Local SAR Enhancements in Anatomically Correct Children and Adult Models as a Function of Position Within 1.5 T MR Body Coil. Progress in Biophysics and Molecular Biology, 107(3):428-433, 2011, doi:10.1016/j.pbiomolbio.2011.09.017
Neufeld, E., Gosselin, M.C., Murbach, M., Christ, A., Cabot, E. & Kuster, N. Analysis of the Local Worst-Case SAR Exposure Caused by an MRI Multi-transmit Body Coil in Anatomical Models of the Human Body. Physics in Medicine and Biology, 56(15):4649-4659, 2011, doi:10.1088/0031-9155/56/15/002
Bakker, J., Paulides, M., Christ, A., Kuster, N. & van Rhoon, G. Assessment of Induced SAR in Children Exposed to Electromagnetic Plane Waves between 10 MHz and 5.6 GHz. Physics in Medicine and Biology, 55(11):3115-3130, 2010, doi:10.1088/0031-9155/55/11/009
Christ, A., Gosselin, M.C., Christopoulou, M., Kühn, S. & Kuster, N. Age-Dependent Tissue-Specific Exposure of Cell Phone Users. Physics in Medicine and Biology, 55(7):1767-1783, 2010, doi:10.1088/0031-9155/55/7/001
Christ, A., Kainz, W., Hahn, E., Honegger, K., Zefferer, M., Neufeld, E., Rascher, W., Janka, R., Bautz, W., Chen, J., Kiefer, B., Schmitt, P., Hollenbach, H.P., Shen, J., Oberle, M., Szczerba, D., Kam, A., Guag, J. & Kuster, N. The Virtual Family - Development of Surface-Based Anatomical Models of Two Adults and Two Children for Dosimetric Simulations. Physics in Medicine and Biology, 55(2):N23-N38, 2010, doi:10.1088/0031-9155/55/2/N01
Focke, F., Schürmann, D., Kuster, N. & Schär, P. DNA Fragmentation in Human Fibroblasts under Extremely Low Frequency Electromagnetic Field Exposure. Mutation Research/Fundamental and Molecular Mechanisms of Mutagenesis, 683(1-2):74-83, 2010, doi:10.1016/j.mrfmmm.2009.10.012
Kühn, S. & Kuster, N. Evaluation of Measurement Techniques to Show Compliance with RF Safety Limits in Heterogeneous Field Distributions. IEEE Transactions on Electromagnetic Compatibility, 52(4):820-828, 2010, doi:10.1109/TEMC.2010.2066570
Siegbahn, M., Bit-Babik, G., Keshvari, J., Christ, A., Derat, B., Monebhurrun, V., Penney, C., Vogel, M. & Wittig, T. An International Interlaboratory Comparison of Mobile Phone SAR Calculation With CAD-Based Models. IEEE Transactions on Electromagnetic Compatibility, 52(4):804-811, 2010, doi:10.1109/TEMC.2010.2051672
Arnetz, B., Wiholm, C., Kuster, N., Hillert, L. & Moffat, S. Exploring Exposure to Mobile-Phone Electromagnetic Fields and Psychophysiological and Self-Rated Symptoms. Psychosomatic Medicine, 71(1):115, 2009
Gosselin, M.C., Christ, A., Kühn, S. & Kuster, N. Dependence of the Occupational Exposure to Mobile Phone Base Stations on the Properties of the Antenna and the Human Body. IEEE Transactions on Electromagnetic Compatibility, 51(2):227-235, 2009, doi:10.1109/TEMC.2009.2013717
Wiholm, C., Lowden, A., Kuster, N., Hillert, L., Arnetz, B., \AA, T. & Moffat, S. Mobile Phone Exposure and Spatial Memory. Bioelectromagnetics, 30(1):59-65, 2009, doi:10.1002/bem.20443
Benfante, R., Antonini, R.A., Kuster, N., Schuderer, J., Maercker, C., Adlkofer, F., Clementi, F. & Fornasari, D. The Expression of PHOX2A, PHOX2B and of Their Target Gene Dopamine-Beta-Hydroxylase (DbetaH) is not Modified by Exposure to Extremely-Low-Frequency Electromagnetic Field (ELF-EMF) in a Human Neuronal Model. Toxicology In Vitro, 22(6):1489-1495, 2008, doi:10.1016/j.tiv.2008.05.003
Boutry, C., Kühn, S., Achermann, P., Romann, A., Keshvari, J. & Kuster, N. Dosimetric Evaluation and Comparison of Different RF Exposure Apparatuses used in Human Volunteer Studies. Bioelectromagnetics, 29(1):11-19, 2008, doi:10.1002/bem.20356
Dawe, A., Nylund, R., Leszczynski, D., Kuster, N., Reader, T. & Pomerai, D.D. Continuous Wave and Simulated GSM Exposure at 1.8 W/kg and 1.8 GHz Do Not Induce hsp16-1 Heat-Shock Gene Expression in Caenorhabditis Elegans. Bioelectromagnetics, 29(2):92-99, 2008, doi:10.1002/bem.20366
Kuster, N. Comments on the Brief Communication `Security Considerations in Blinded Exposure Experiments Using Electromagnetic Waves' by Christian Wolf. Bioelectromagnetics, 29(8):660-661, 2008, doi:10.1002/bem.20450
Christ, A., Samaras, T., Neufeld, E., Klingenböck, A. & Kuster, N. SAR Distribution in Human Beings When Using Body-worn RF Transmitters. Radiation Protection Dosimetry, 124(1):6-14, 2007, doi:10.1093/rpd/ncm377
Kühn, S., Lott, U., Kramer, A. & Kuster, N. Assessment Methods for Demonstrating Compliance with Safety Limits of Wireless Devices Used in Home and Office Environments. IEEE Transactions on Electromagnetic Compatibility, 49(3):519-525, 2007, doi:10.1109/TEMC.2007.903042
Schmid, G., Cecil, S., Goger, C., Trimmel, M., Kuster, N. & Molla-Djafari, H. New Head Exposure System for Use in Human Provocation Studies With EEG Recording During GSM900- and UMTS-Like Exposure. Bioelectromagnetics, 28(8):636-647, 2007, doi:10.1002/bem.20340
Beard, B., Kainz, W., Onishi, T., Iyama, T., Watanabe, S., Fujiwara, O., Wang, J., Bit-Babik, G., Faraone, A., Wiart, J., Christ, A., Kuster, N., Lee, A.K., Kroeze, H., Siegbahn, M., Keshvari, J., Abrishamkar, H., Stuchly, M., Simon, W., Manteuffel, D. & Nikoloski, N. Comparisons of Computed Mobile Phone Induced SAR in the SAM Phantom to That in Anatomically Correct Models of the Human Head. IEEE Transactions on Electromagnetic Compatibility, 48(2):397-407, 2006, doi:10.1109/TEMC.2006.873870
Kainz, W., Nikoloski, N., Oesch, W., Berdi\~nas-Torres, V., Fröhlich, J., Neubauer, G. & Kuster, N. Development of Novel Whole-Body Exposure Setups for Rats Providing High Efficiency, National Toxicology Program (NTP) Compatibility and Well-Characterized Exposure. Physics in Medicine and Biology, 51(20):5211-5229, 2006, doi:10.1088/0031-9155/51/20/009
Kuster, N., Berdi\~nas-Torres, V., Nikoloski, N., Frauscher, M. & Kainz, W. Methodology of Detailed Dosimetry and Treatment of Uncertainty and Variations for In Vivo Studies. Bioelectromagnetics, 27(5):378-391, 2006, doi:10.1002/bem.20219
Lantow, M., Lupke, M., Frahm, J., Mattsson, M.O., Kuster, N. & Simkó, M. ROS Release and Hsp70 Expression After Exposure to 1,800 MHz Radiofrequency Electromagnetic Fields in Primary Human Monocytes and Lymphocytes. Radiation and Environmental Biophysics, 45(1):55-62, Springer Berlin / Heidelberg, 2006, doi:10.1007/s00411-006-0038-3
Regel, S., Negovetic, S., Röösli, M., Berdi\~nas, V., Schuderer, J., Huss, A., Lott, U., Kuster, N. & Achermann, P. UMTS Base Station-Like Exposure, Well-Being and Cognitive Performance. Environmental Health Perspectives, 114(8):1270-1275, 2006, doi:10.1289/ehp.8934
Remondini, D., Nylund, R., Reivinen, J., Gannes, F.P.d., Veyret, B., Lagroye, I., Haro, E., Trillo, A., Capri, M., Schlatterer, K., Gminski, R., Fitzner, R., Tauber, R., Schuderer, J., Kuster, N., Leszczynski, D., Bersani, F. & Maercker, C. Gene Expression Changes in Human Cells After Exposure to Mobile Phone Microwaves. Proteomics, 6(17):4755-4764, 2006, doi:10.1002/pmic.200500896
Christ, A., Chavannes, N., Nikoloski, N., Gerber, H.U., Pokovic, K. & Kuster, N. A Numerical and Experimental Comparison of Human Head Phantoms for Compliance Testing of Mobile Telephone Equipment. Bioelectromagnetics, 26(2):125-137, 2005, doi:10.1002/bem.20088
Cosquer, B., Galani, R., Kuster, N. & Cassel, J.C. Whole-Body Exposure to 2.45 GHz Electromagnetic Fields Does Not Alter Anxiety Responses in Rats: A Plus-Maze Study Including Test Validation. Behavioural Brain Research, 156(1):65-74, 2005
Cosquer, B., Kuster, N. & Cassel, J.C. Whole-Body Exposure to 2.45 GHz Electromagnetic Fields does not Alter 12-Arm Radial-Maze with Reduced Access to Spatial Cues in Rats. Behavioural Brain Research, 161(2):331-334, 2005
Görlitz, B., Müller, P., Ebert, S., Hecker, H., Kuster, N. & Dasenbrock, C. Effects of 1-Week and 6-Week Exposure to GSM/DCS Radiofrequency Radiation on Micronucleus Formation in B6C3F1 Mice. Radiation Research, 164(4(1)):431-439, 2005
Huber, R., Treyer, V., Schuderer, J., Berthold, T., Buck, A., Kuster, N., Landolt, H.P. & Achermann, P. Exposure to Pulse-Modulated Radio Frequency Electromagnetic Fields Affects Regional Cerebral Blood Flow. European Journal of Neuroscience, 21(4):1000-1006, 2005, doi:10.1111/j.1460-9568.2005.03929.x
Kainz, W., Christ, A., Kellom, T., Seidman, S., Nikoloski, N., Beard, B. & Kuster, N. Dosimetric Comparison of the Specific Anthropomorphic Mannequin (SAM) to 14 Anatomical Head Models Using a Novel Definition for the Mobile Phone Positioning. Physics in Medicine and Biology, 50(14):3423-3445, 2005, doi:10.1088/0031-9155/50/14/016
Nikoloski, N., Fröhlich, J., Samaras, T., Schuderer, J. & Kuster, N. Reevaluation and Improved Design of the TEM Cell In Vitro Exposure Unit for Replication Studies. Bioelectromagnetics, 26(3):215-224, 2005, doi:10.1002/bem.20067
Cassel, J.C., Cosquer, B., Galani, R. & Kuster, N. Whole-Body Exposure to 2.45 GHz Electromagnetic Fields Does Not Alter Radial-Maze Performance in Rats. Behavioural Brain Research, 155(1):37-43, 2004
Kuster, N., Fröhlich, J., Shepard, A. & Kelsh, M. Exposure Categorization in Epidemiological Studies on Possible Health Effects of Mobile Phones and Base Stations. Epidemiology, 15(4):114, 2004
Kuster, N., Schuderer, J., Christ, A., Futter, P. & Ebert, S. Guidance for Exposure Design of Human Studies Addressing Health Risk Evaluations of Mobile Phones. Bioelectromagnetics, 25(7):524-529, 2004, doi:10.1002/bem.20034
Schönborn, F., Pokovic, K. & Kuster, N. Dosimetric Analysis of the Carousel Setup for the Exposure of Rats at 1.62 GHz. Bioelectromagnetics, 25(1):16-26, 2004, doi:10.1002/bem.10153
Schuderer, J., Oesch, W., Felber, N., Spät, D. & Kuster, N. In Vitro Exposure Apparatus for ELF Magnetic Fields. Bioelectromagnetics, 25(8):582-591, 2004, doi:10.1002/bem.20037
Schuderer, J., Samaras, T., Oesch, W., Spät, D. & Kuster, N. High Peak SAR Exposure Unit with Tight Exposure and Environmental Control for In Vitro Experiments at 1800 MHz. IEEE Transactions on Microwave Theory and Techniques, 52(8, Part 2):2057-2066, 2004, doi:10.1109/TMTT.2004.832009
Schuderer, J., Schmid, T., Urban, G., Samaras, T. & Kuster, N. Novel High Resolution Temperature Probe for RF Dosimetry. Physics in Medicine and Biology, 49(6):N83-N92, 2004
Schuderer, J., Spät, D., Samaras, T., Oesch, W., Gröbli, J.C. & Kuster, N. In Vitro Exposure Setups for RF Exposures at 900 MHz. IEEE Transactions on Microwave Theory and Techniques, 52(8, Part 2):2067-2075, 2004, doi:10.1109/TMTT.2004.832010
Huber, R., Schuderer, J., Graf, T., Jütz, K., Borbély, A.A., Kuster, N. & Achermann, P. Radio Frequency Electromagnetic Field Exposure in Humans: Estimation of SAR Distribution in the Brain, Effects on Sleep and Heart Rate. Bioelectromagnetics, 24(4):262-276, 2003, doi:10.1002/bem.10103
Schuderer, J. & Kuster, N. The Effect of the Meniscus at the Solid/Liquid Interface on the SAR in Petri Dishes and Flasks. Bioelectromagnetics, 24(2):103-108, 2003
Schönborn, F., Pokovic, K., Burkhardt, M. & Kuster, N. Basis for Optimization of \em In Vitro Exposure Setups for Health Hazard Evaluation of Mobile Communications. Bioelectromagnetics, 22(8):547-559, 2001, doi:10.1002/bem.83
Burkhardt, M. & Kuster, N. Appropriate Modeling of the Ear for Compliance Testing of Handheld MTE with SAR Safety Limits at 900/1800 MHz. IEEE Transactions on Microwave Theory and Techniques, 48(11(1)):1921-1934, 2000, doi:10.1109/22.883873
Huber, R., Graf, T., Cote, K.A., Wittmann, L., Gallmann, E., Matter, D., Schuderer, J., Kuster, N., Borbély, A.A. & Achermann, P. Exposure to Pulsed High-Frequency Electromagnetic Field During Waking Affects Human Sleep EEG. NeuroReport, 11(15):3321-3325, 2000
Kuster, N. & Schönborn, F. Recommended Minimal Requirements and Development Guidelines for Exposure Setups for Bio-Experiments Addressing the Health Risk Concern of Wireless Communications. Bioelectromagnetics, 21(7):508-514, 2000, doi:10.1002/1521-186X(200010)21:7<508::AID-BEM4>3.0.CO;2-F
Samaras, T., Regli, P. & Kuster, N. Electromagnetic and Heat Transfer Computations for Non-Ionizing Radiation Dosimetry. Physics in Medicine and Biology, 45(8):2233-2246, 2000, doi:10.1088/0031-9155/45/8/312
Schönborn, F., Pokovic, K., Wobus, A. & Kuster, N. Design, Optimization, Realization and Analysis of an \it In Vitro Setup for the Exposure of Embryonic Stem Cells at 1.7 GHz. Bioelectromagnetics, 21(5):372-384, 2000, doi:10.1002/1521-186X(200007)21:5<372::AID-BEM6>3.0.CO;2-S
Leisten, O., Vardaxoglou, Y., Schmid, T., Rosenberger, B., Agboraw, E., Kuster, N. & Nicolaidis, G. Miniature Dielectric-Loaded Personal Telephone Antennas with Low User Exposure. Electronic Letters, 34(17):1628-1629, 1998, doi:10.1049/el:19981197
Burkhardt, M., Spinelli, Y. & Kuster, N. Exposure Setup to Test Effects of Wireless Communications Systems on the CNS. Health Physics, 73(5):770-778, 1997
Fritze, K., Wiessner, C., Kuster, N., Sommer, C., Gass, P., Hermann, D.M., Kiessling, M. & Hossmann, .A. Effect of Global System for Mobile Communication Microwave Exposure on the Genomic Response of the Rat Brain. Neuroscience, 81(3):627-639, 1997, doi:10.1016/S0306-4522(97)00228-5
Kuster, N., Kästle, R. & Schmid, T. Dosimetric Evaluation of Handheld Mobile Communications Equipment with Known Precision. IEICE Transactions on Communications, E80-B(5):645-652, 1997
Sommer, C., Fritze, K., Wiessner, C., Kuster, N., Hermann, D., Hossmann, .A. & Kiessling, M. Acute Effects of GSM Electromagnetic Field Exposure on the Genomic Response of the Rat CNS. Journal of Cerebral Blood Flow and Metabolism, 17 (Suppl. 1):S486, 1997
Sommer, C., Fritze, K., Wiessner, C., Kuster, N., Hermann, D., Hossmann, .A. & Kiessling, M. Effects of Electromagnetic Field Exposure on the Genomic Response and Blood-Brain Barrier Permeability in the Rat CNS. Clinical Neuropathology, 16:289, 1997
Burkhardt, M., Pokovic, K., Gnos, M., Schmid, T. & Kuster, N. Numerical and Experimental Dosimetry of Petri Dish Exposure Setups. Journal of the Bioelectromagnetic Society, 17(6):483-493, 1996, doi:10.1002/bem.1996.2250170601
Schmid, T., Egger, O. & Kuster, N. Automated E-Field Scanning System for Dosimetric Assessments. IEEE Transactions on Microwave Theory and Techniques, 44(1):105-113, 1996, doi:10.1109/22.481392

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