In- and On-Body Antennas




Inbody 1 sm TG

Simulated SAR values of two antennas on the body at 5.8 GHz: a reconfigurable beam-steering antenna (left) vs. a loop antenna (right).



WBAN5b tg3WBAN5a tg

EMF simulations of a smart watch antenna.



Wireless hearing aid simulation (top) and measurement on a head phantom (bottom) to evaluate link quality, gain, and directivity.

In- and On-Body Antennas

Expertise & Infrastructure

The IT'IS Foundation designs and validates devices containing electrically small, resonant and non-resonant antennas, which can accommodate anatomical variations while respecting safety regulations. IT'IS calls on decades of experience in antenna development and safety assessment, as well as detailed knowledge about the intricacies of regulatory agencies and the corresponding processes due to their active participation and membership in IEC/ISO standard groups.

The group’s exposure assessment laboratories are equipped with the most advanced tools including the cSARD6 and cSAR3D (left/right/flat/quad), the latest DASY6 RX90L with DASY52NEO licenses, and a wide range of specialized probes. With more than 100 SemCAD/Sim4Life licenses, including the Virtual Population 3.x and multiple animal models, and several High Performance Computers (HPC) ranging from Graphics Processing Unit (GPU) clusters to supercomputers, our interdisciplinary research team can tackle highly specific and complex research tasks with superior innovation and efficiency – while ensuring compliance to national and international standards.


Select Customized Research Projects of the Past Years
  • Evaluated in vivo link budget and Specific Absorption Rate (SAR) compliance of an implanted pacemaker for a major manufacturer;
  • Investigated the wireless microphone transmission performance at various bands in the presence of a human body, including the effect of the antenna placement and its distance from the body on its radiation pattern and link budget loss (body loss) for different frequencies, for the Swiss Federal Office of Communications;
  • Evaluated the potential interference of wireless hearing aids with medical data service and medical implant communications devices, for a hearing aid industry body;
  • Optimized the combined inductive power transfer and communication between external and implanted devices, in collaboration with a major acoustic implant manufacturer.


Solutions Beyond State-of-the-Art

Wireless biomedical and wearable devices, whether implanted (e.g., pacemakers, deep brain stimulators (DBS), electroceuticals), or body-worn (e.g., glucose monitors, hearing aids, wireless body area network (WBAN) devices), face unique challenges in their design and safety assessment, and require customized solutions for wireless communication as well as power transfer. IT'IS is eager to work with potential partners to develop and evaluate the efficacy and safety of such novel technologies.



We look forward to discussing with you how we can best support your R&D initiatives and regulatory submissions – simply call us at +41 44 245 96 96 or send us an email at



Karampatzakis, A., Kühn, S., Tsanidis, G., Neufeld, E., Samaras, T. & Kuster, N. Antenna Design and Tissue Parameters Considerations for an Improved Modelling of Microwave Ablation in the Liver. Physics in Medicine and Biology, 58(10):3191-3206, 2013, doi:10.1088/0031-9155/58/10/3191
Karampatzakis, A., Kühn, S., Tsanidis, G., Neufeld, E., Samaras, T. & Kuster, N. Heating Characteristics of Antenna Arrays Used in Microwave Ablation: A Theoretical Parametric Study. IEEE Transactions on Biomedical Engineering, 43(10):1321-1327, 2013
Gosselin, M.C., Vermeeren, G., Kühn, S., Kellerman, V., Benkler, S., Uusitupa, T., Joseph, W., Gati, A., Wiart, J., Meyer, F., Martens, L., Nojima, T., Hikaje, T., Balzano, Q., Christ, A. & Kuster, N. Estimation Formulas for the Specific Absorption Rate in Humans Exposed to Base-Station Antennas. IEEE Transactions on Electromagnetic Compatibility, 53(4):909-922, 2011, doi:10.1109/TEMC.2011.2139216
Vermeeren, G., Gosselin, M.C., Kühn, S., Kellerman, V., Hadjem, A., Gati, A., Joseph, W., Wiart, J., Meyer, F., Kuster, N. & Martens, L. The Influence of the Reflective Environment on the Absorption of a Human Male Exposed to Representative Base Station Antennas from 300 MHz to 5 GHz. Physics in Medicine and Biology, 55(18):5541-5555, 2010, doi:10.1088/0031-9155/55/18/018
Capstick, M., Jekkonen, J., Marvin, A., Flintoft, I. & Dawson, L. A Novel Indirect Method to Determine the Radiation Impedance of a Handheld Antenna Structure. IEEE Transactions on Instrumentation and Measurement, 58(3):578-585, 2009, doi:10.1109/TIM.2008.2005263
Gosselin, M.C., Christ, A., Kühn, S. & Kuster, N. Dependence of the Occupational Exposure to Mobile Phone Base Stations on the Properties of the Antenna and the Human Body. IEEE Transactions on Electromagnetic Compatibility, 51(2):227-235, 2009, doi:10.1109/TEMC.2009.2013717