The transverse electromagnetic (TEM) cell system developed by T. Litovitz, D. Krause, L.M. Penafiel, E. Elson, and J.M. Mullins (1993); and utilized by L.M. Penafiel, T. Litovitz, D. Krause, A. Desta, and J.M. Mullins (1997) for the exposure of cells in T25 flasks at 835 MHz has been reevaluated and a greatly improved setup has been constructed. At 835 MHz, the average SAR within the medium is 6.0 W/kg at 1W input power with a standard deviation of less than 52%. The temperature increase was reduced to 0.045 °C/(W/kg) by applying active air flow cooling. These results do not correspond to the previous study reporting an average SAR within the medium of 2.5 W/kg at an input power of 0.96W.
Due to the large interest, the IT'IS Foundation offers copies of this setup. The setup allows well defined exposure from a few MHz up to 1GHz.