EMF Exposure Systems
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Overview of Exposure Systems



Exposure system sXcTEM27 for cell-line exposure to 27 MHz amplitude modulated radiofrequency fields.



The sXv27 system is designed to expose 2 × 8 cages with 2 mice each to 27 MHz RF signals.



The sXhS900 exposure system allows overnight exposure of the subject using a polarized antenna mounted above the volunteers bed.




On request we develop in vitro, in vivo or human provocation exposure systems, optimized for the specific electromagnetic exposure of interest to the customer.


EMF Exposure Systems

Expertise & Infrastructure

The IT'IS Foundation designs and builds electromagnetic field (EMF) exposure systems (sX series, where sX stands for "System for eXposure") with options for cells (c), vertebrates (v), and humans (h). As the world's premier provider of these systems, IT'IS offers its long-standing experience in the generation, fine control, and dosimetric evaluation of electromagnetic fields over a wide dynamic range and a variety of signals complying with relevant industry specifications, e.g. cell phone modulations. Our system design ensures maximum homogeneity and supports continuous monitoring of device conditions and environmental parameters, as well as blinded protocols.

Exposure system designs are tuned and validated through both numerical simulations as well as characterization measurements. The group’s exposure assessment laboratories are equipped with the most advanced tools including the latest DASY6 RX90L with DASY52NEO licenses, and a wide range of standard as well as specialized dosimetric probes. With more than 100 SemCAD/Sim4Life licenses, including the Virtual Population 3.x and multiple animal models, and several High Performance Computers (HPC) ranging from Graphics Processing Unit (GPU) clusters to supercomputers, our experienced team ensures that the exposure systems operate correctly and reliably.


Select Customized Research Projects of the Past Years
  • Produced more than 40 exposure systems, used actively worldwide;
  • Developed widely accepted guidelines for the development of exposure systems for health risk assessment (Kuster and Schönborn, 2000);
  • Developed guidelines for best practice in dosimetric assessment (Kuster et al., 2006);
  • Led the REFLEX Project, which introduced a new standard for well-controlled and blinded EM exposure of cells (sXc);
  • Produced a novel RF/ELF sXh exposure system for hypothesis-driven research on the effects of ELF & RF electromagnetic fields on brain functions (Murbach et al., 2012).


Supporting Science-based EMF Regulation

While many of the effects of EMF on living tissue remain poorly understood, the range of EMF applications in wireless communication and wireless power transfer is constantly expanding, as are the medical applications of EMF in imaging methods as well as therapies. As EMF regulations develop, it is crucial to protect higher-risk populations, such as small children or patients with medical implants, without resorting to overly conservative risk estimates which stifle innovation and technological progress. To understand the health effects of EMF, to develop the tools to study these effects, and to work with academia, industry and regulators to apply EMF safely and beneficially, are the core mandate of IT'IS.


Contact us

We look forward to discussing with you how we can best support your research initiatives. We also provide support and consultancy services to streamline the application process of CTI co-financed R&D projects for the Swiss industry and to build effective consortiums for co-financed projects in Asia, the EU and US. Simply call us at +41 44 245 96 96 or send us an email at customized@itis.swiss.



Niederhäusern, N.v., Ducray, A., Zielinski, J., Murbach, M. & Mevissen, M. Effects of Radiofrequency Electromagnetic Field Exposure on Neuronal Differentiation and Mitochondrial Function in SH-SY5Y Cells. Toxicology in Vitro, 61:104609, Elsevier, 2019, doi:10.1016/j.tiv.2019.104609
Dressel, S., Gosselin, M.C., Capstick, M.H., Carrasco, E., Weyland, M.S., Scheidegger, S., Neufeld, E., Kuster, N., Bodis, S. & Rohrer Bley, C. Novel Hyperthermia Applicator System Allows Adaptive Treatment Planning: Preliminary Clinical Results in Tumour-Bearing Animals. Veterinary and Comparative Oncology, 16(2):202-213, 2018, doi:10.1111/vco.12340
Kumari, K., Koivisto, H., Capstick, M.H., Naarala, J., Viluksela, M., Tanila, H. & Juutilainen, J. Behavioural Phenotypes in Mice After Prenatal and Early Postnatal Exposure to Intermediate Frequency Magnetic Fields. Environmental Research, 162:27-34, 2018, doi:10.1016/j.envres.2017.12.013
Neufeld, E., Carrasco, E., Murbach, M., Balzano, Q., Christ, A. & Kuster, N. Theoretical and Numerical Assessment of Maximally Allowable Power-Density Averaging Area for Conservative Electromagnetic Exposure Assessment Above 6 GHz. Bioelectromagnetics, 39(8):617-630, 2018, doi:10.1002/bem.22147
Wyde, M.E., Horn, T.L., Capstick, M., Lasbury, J.M., Koepke, G., Wilson, P.F., Kissling, G.E., Stout, M.D., Kuster, N., Melnick, R.L., Gauger, J., Bucher, J.R. & McCormick, D.L. Effect of Cell Phone Radiofrequency Radiation on Body Temperature in Rodents: Pilot Studies of the National Toxicology Program's Reverberation Chamber Exposure System. Bioelectromagnetics, 39(3):190-199, 2018
Capstick, M., Kuster, N., Kühn, S., Gong, Y., Wilson, P., Ladbury, J., Koepke, G., McCormick, D.L., Gauger, J. & Melnick, R.L. A Radio Frequency Radiation Exposure System for Rodents based on Reverberation Chambers. IEEE Transactions on Electromagnetic Compatibility, 59(4):1041-1052, 2017
Manser, M., Sater, M., Schmid, C., Noreen, F., Murbach, M., Kuster, N., Schuermann, D. & Schär, P. ELF‑MF Exposure Affects Robustness of Epigenetic Programming during Granulopoiesis. Scientific Reports, 7:43345, 2017
Moorselaar, I.v., Slottje, P., Heller, P., Strien, R.v., Kromhout, H., Murbach, M., Kuster, N., Vermeulen, R. & Huss, A. Effects of personalised exposure on self-rated electromagnetic hypersensitivity and sensibility - A double blind randomised controlled trial. Environment International, 99:255-262, 2017
Murbach, M., Neufeld, E., Samaras, T., Corcoles, J., Robb, F., Kainz, W. & Kuster, N. Pregnant Women Models Analyzed for RF Exposure and Temperature Increase within 3 T RF Shimmed Birdcages. Magnetic Resonance in Medicine, 77(5):2048-2056, 2017
Capstick, M., Gong, Y., Pasche, B. & Kuster, N. An HF Exposure System for Mice with Improved Efficiency. Bioelectromagnetics, 37(4):223-233, 2016
Gong, Y., Capstick, M., Tillmann, T., Dasenbrock, C., Samaras, T. & Kuster, N. Desktop Exposure System and Dosimetry for Small Scale In Vivo Radio Frequency Exposure Experiments. Bioelectromagnetics, 37(1):49-61, 2016
Huss, A., Murbach, M., Moorselaar, I.v., Kuster, N., Strien, R.v., Kromhout, H., Vermeulen, R. & Slottje, P. Novel Exposure Units for at-Home Personalized Testing of Electromagnetic Sensibility. Bioelectromagnetics, 37(1):62-68, 2016
Liorni, I., Parazzini, M., Fiocchi, S., Douglas, M., Capstick, M., Kuster, N. & Ravazzani, P. Computational Assessment of Pregnant Woman Models Exposed to Uniform ELF- Magnetic Fields: Compliance with the European Current Exposure Regulations for the General Public and Occupational Exposures at 50 Hz. Radiation Protection Dosimetry, 172(4):382-392, 2016
Lustenberger, C., Murbach, M., Tüshaus, L., Wehrle, F., Kuster, N., Achermann, P. & Huber, R. Inter-Individual and Intra-Individual Variation of the Effects of Pulsed RF EMF Exposure on the Human Sleep EEG. Bioelectromagnetics, 36(3):169-177, 2015
Liorni, I., Parazzini, M., Fiocchi, S., Ravazzani, P., Parazzini, M., Douglas, M., Capstick, M., Gosselin, M.C. & Kuster, N. Dosimetric Study of Fetal Exposure to Uniform Magnetic Fields at 50 Hz. Bioelectromagnetics, 35(8):580-597, 2014
Murbach, M., Neufeld, E., Christopoulou, M., Achermann, P. & Kuster, N. Modeling of EEG Electrode Artifacts and Thermal Ripples in Human Radiofrequency Exposure Studies. Bioelectromagnetics, 35(4):273-283, 2014
Capstick, M., Schär, P., Schürmann, D., Romann, A. & Kuster, N. ELF Exposure System for Live Cell Imaging. Bioelectromagnetics, 34(3):231-239, 2013, doi:10.1002/bem.21751
Murbach, M., Christopoulou, M., Crespo-Valero, P., Achermann, P. & Kuster, N. Exposure System to Study Hypotheses of ELF and RF Electromagnetic Field Interactions of Mobile Phones with the Central Nervous System. Bioelectromagnetics, 33(6):527-533, 2012, doi:10.1002/bem.21710
Nadakuduti, J., Douglas, M., Capstick, M., Kühn, S. & Kuster, N. Application of an induced field sensor for assessment of electromagnetic exposure from compact fluorescent lamps. Bioelectromagnetics, 33(2):166-175, 2012, doi:10.1002/bem.20696
Nadakuduti, J., Douglas, M., Capstick, M., Kühn, S. & Kuster, N. Application of an Induced Field Sensor for Assessment of Electromagnetic Exposure From Compact Fluorescent Lamps. Bioelectromagnetics, 33(2):166-175, 2012, doi:10.1002/bem.20696
Neufeld, E., Gosselin, M.C., Murbach, M., Christ, A., Cabot, E. & Kuster, N. Analysis of the Local Worst-Case SAR Exposure Caused by an MRI Multi-transmit Body Coil in Anatomical Models of the Human Body. Physics in Medicine and Biology, 56(15):4649-4659, 2011, doi:10.1088/0031-9155/56/15/002
Benfante, R., Antonini, R.A., Kuster, N., Schuderer, J., Maercker, C., Adlkofer, F., Clementi, F. & Fornasari, D. The Expression of PHOX2A, PHOX2B and of Their Target Gene Dopamine-Beta-Hydroxylase (DbetaH) is not Modified by Exposure to Extremely-Low-Frequency Electromagnetic Field (ELF-EMF) in a Human Neuronal Model. Toxicology In Vitro, 22(6):1489-1495, 2008, doi:10.1016/j.tiv.2008.05.003
Lantow, M., Schuderer, J., Hartwig, C. & Simkó, M. Free Radical Release and HSP70 Expression in Two Human Immune-Relevant Cell Lines after Exposure to 1800 MHz Radiofrequency Radiation. Radiation Research, 165(1):88-94, 2006, doi:10.1667/RR3476.1
Regel, S., Negovetic, S., Röösli, M., Berdi\~nas, V., Schuderer, J., Huss, A., Lott, U., Kuster, N. & Achermann, P. UMTS Base Station-Like Exposure, Well-Being and Cognitive Performance. Environmental Health Perspectives, 114(8):1270-1275, 2006, doi:10.1289/ehp.8934
Remondini, D., Nylund, R., Reivinen, J., Gannes, F.P.d., Veyret, B., Lagroye, I., Haro, E., Trillo, A., Capri, M., Schlatterer, K., Gminski, R., Fitzner, R., Tauber, R., Schuderer, J., Kuster, N., Leszczynski, D., Bersani, F. & Maercker, C. Gene Expression Changes in Human Cells After Exposure to Mobile Phone Microwaves. Proteomics, 6(17):4755-4764, 2006, doi:10.1002/pmic.200500896
Görlitz, B., Müller, P., Ebert, S., Hecker, H., Kuster, N. & Dasenbrock, C. Effects of 1-Week and 6-Week Exposure to GSM/DCS Radiofrequency Radiation on Micronucleus Formation in B6C3F1 Mice. Radiation Research, 164(4(1)):431-439, 2005
Huber, R., Treyer, V., Schuderer, J., Berthold, T., Buck, A., Kuster, N., Landolt, H.P. & Achermann, P. Exposure to Pulse-Modulated Radio Frequency Electromagnetic Fields Affects Regional Cerebral Blood Flow. European Journal of Neuroscience, 21(4):1000-1006, 2005, doi:10.1111/j.1460-9568.2005.03929.x
Nikoloski, N., Fröhlich, J., Samaras, T., Schuderer, J. & Kuster, N. Reevaluation and Improved Design of the TEM Cell In Vitro Exposure Unit for Replication Studies. Bioelectromagnetics, 26(3):215-224, 2005, doi:10.1002/bem.20067
Capri, M., Scarcella, E., Bianchi, E., Fumelli, C., Mesirca, P., Agostini, C., Schuderer, J., Kuster, N., Franceschi, C. & Bersani, F. 1800 MHz Radiofrequency (Mobile Phones, Different Global System for Mobile Communication Modulations) does not affect Apoptosis and Heat Shock Protein 70 Level in Peripheral Blood Mononuclear Cells from Young and Old Donors. International Journal of Radiation Biology, 80(6):389-397, 2004, doi:10.1080/09553000410001702346
Kuster, N., Schuderer, J., Christ, A., Futter, P. & Ebert, S. Guidance for Exposure Design of Human Studies Addressing Health Risk Evaluations of Mobile Phones. Bioelectromagnetics, 25(7):524-529, 2004, doi:10.1002/bem.20034
Schuderer, J., Oesch, W., Felber, N., Spät, D. & Kuster, N. In Vitro Exposure Apparatus for ELF Magnetic Fields. Bioelectromagnetics, 25(8):582-591, 2004, doi:10.1002/bem.20037
Schuderer, J., Samaras, T., Oesch, W., Spät, D. & Kuster, N. High Peak SAR Exposure Unit with Tight Exposure and Environmental Control for In Vitro Experiments at 1800 MHz. IEEE Transactions on Microwave Theory and Techniques, 52(8, Part 2):2057-2066, 2004, doi:10.1109/TMTT.2004.832009
Schuderer, J., Spät, D., Samaras, T., Oesch, W., Gröbli, J.C. & Kuster, N. In Vitro Exposure Setups for RF Exposures at 900 MHz. IEEE Transactions on Microwave Theory and Techniques, 52(8, Part 2):2067-2075, 2004, doi:10.1109/TMTT.2004.832010
Huber, R., Schuderer, J., Graf, T., Jütz, K., Borbély, A.A., Kuster, N. & Achermann, P. Radio Frequency Electromagnetic Field Exposure in Humans: Estimation of SAR Distribution in the Brain, Effects on Sleep and Heart Rate. Bioelectromagnetics, 24(4):262-276, 2003, doi:10.1002/bem.10103
Huber, R., Graf, T., Cote, K.A., Wittmann, L., Gallmann, E., Matter, D., Schuderer, J., Kuster, N., Borbély, A.A. & Achermann, P. Exposure to Pulsed High-Frequency Electromagnetic Field During Waking Affects Human Sleep EEG. NeuroReport, 11(15):3321-3325, 2000

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